Final energy consumption

Updated: 21 Dec 2020
Next update: 16 Dec 2021

Finland has a high level of energy consumption per capita. Energy consumption is influenced by Finland’s cold climate, long distances and rather energy-intensive industry. Consumer habits also have a major impact on energy consumption. From a sustainable development perspective, energy consumption should be reduced.

Technological innovations reduce final energy consumption in transport and in the heating of buildings, but transport growth, on the other hand, has steadily increased energy consumption in transport. Reducing the electricity consumption of small household appliances also affects final energy consumption. Moreover, as economic structures change, energy consumption by industry might fall as the service sector grows. Nevertheless, economic development also has a direct impact on the energy use of industry.

Final energy consumption measures the consumption of electricity and heat, fuels for space heating, transport fuels and fuels for industrial processes. It differs from total consumption in that energy transmission and distribution losses have been removed from it.

Final energy consumption represents the final amount of energy left at the disposal of households and other consumers. Final consumption of energy is divided into the sectors of manufacturing, transport, heating of buildings and others. The ‘Others’ sector includes use of electricity and fuels by households, the public and private service sector, agriculture and forestry, and construction.


Final energy consumption fell by 1.6 per cent year-on-year. Final consumption decreased most, over two per cent, in manufacturing. Volumes of production and the energy used fell especially in the manufacture of basic metals, but also in the forest and chemical industries. The long-visible structural shift in industrial fuels from fossil fuels towards renewable fuels continued. Manufacturing uses 45 per cent of the final energy consumption.

The consumption of heating energy in residential buildings decreased by two per cent from the previous year despite the continued growth in the number and volume of dwellings. The year 2019 was warmer in Southern Finland than 2018, in Northern Finland the situation was the opposite. The development in the consumption of heating energy in other than the residential buildings is similar, but the figures contain uncertainty due to model-based calculation. In addition to the area to be heated and the energy efficiency of the building stock, the need for heating energy is also affected by the outdoor temperature. The use of heat pumps for heating has grown significantly from the start of the millennium, which is visible in the statistics in the growing use of both heat pump energy and heat pump electricity.

The share of domestic transport was 16.5 per cent of final energy consumption. The use of energy in domestic transport decreased by one per cent in 2019. The consumption of petrol continued to fall, by two per cent from 2019. The consumption of diesel oil also decreased by two per cent after previous years' growth. The most significant use of diesel oil is transports of business life. The total volumes of transport fuels include the shares of liquid biofuels. The share of alternative propulsion of vehicles in the energy of domestic road transport in Finland was around 11 per cent in 2019. The majority of this was liquid biofuels. The use of other alternative propulsion of vehicles grew strongly but its share is still small. The share of electricity was 0.2 per cent, that of biogas 0.2 per cent and that of natural gas 0.1 per cent.